COVID-19: How to support our immune system in the fight against Omicron
In a nutshell, maintaining a healthy and strong immune system is imperative to warding off any viruses or infections, be it coronavirus or otherwise.
The immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues and organs, as well as the substances they produce. The immune system includes white blood cells and organs and tissues of the lymph system, such as the thymus, spleen, tonsils, lymph nodes, lymph vessels and bone marrow.
This network works in tandem throughout the body to fight off pathogens, such as viruses that cause infection and disease. There are two connected wings of the immune system: the innate wing and the adaptive wing.
The innate, or general immune system is essential as it drives nonspecific and immediate immune defences when the body is challenged.
According to the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), the innate immune system is the body’s first line of defence against germs entering the body. It responds in the same way to all germs and foreign substances, which is why it is referred to as the ‘nonspecific’ immune system. It acts incredibly quickly: for instance, it ensures bacteria that have entered the skin through a small wound are detected and destroyed within a few hours. However, the innate immune system has only limited power to stop the spread of germs.
This is where the adaptive immune system comes into play. The adaptive immune system takes over if the innate immune system is unable to destroy the germs. It specifically targets the type of germ that is causing the infection, but to do that, it first needs to identify the germ. This means it’s slower to respond than the innate immune system, but when it does, it’s more accurate.
According to the NCBI, the adaptive immune system also has the advantage of being able to ‘remember’ germs, so the next time a known germ is encountered, the adaptive wing can respond faster and react immediately to the invasion. This memory is also the reason why there are some illnesses you can only contract once in a lifetime, because afterwards, your body becomes ‘immune’ to the virus.
While it’s easy to toss back a ginger shot and call it a day, improving one’s immunity is down to a series of choices, rather than quick fixes. Maintaining healthy immune function cannot be achieved by scoffing fast food every day, “balanced” by a probiotic, Berocca and lemon water. It’s built through a healthy lifestyle.
To help, Gill Webster, the chief scientist and immunologist at NatureBee, shared with Newshub 10 tips for supporting the body’s innate antiviral defences.
“Our day-to-day living and immune resilience depends foremost on the innate wing of the immune system,” Webster said.
“There are many ways to keep our innate immune system in good working order. These include good quality daily micro-nutrition and also lifestyle manoeuvres that altogether enable the immune system to remain fighting fit, ensuring it is able to ‘pounce’ when challenged.”
10 tips on how to support the innate antiviral defences:
Get adequate sleep
“The body repairs itself and the immune system replenishes during sleep, which is when we are most at rest. The power of sleep must not be underestimated,” Webster said.
“Stress induces a hormone called cortisol, which can stress the immune system and reduce its ability to defend the body.”
Develop or maintain an exercise routine
“It is well established that exercise is important for immune function. Exercise increases blood and lymph flow as your muscles contract, and also increases the circulation of immune cells,” Webster explained.
“Exercises which increase breathing help expel foreign particles and pathogens that may be residing in the airways.”
Minimise alcohol consumption
“Alcohol can suppress your immune system, making you more vulnerable to infections caused by bacteria and viruses. Alcohol is known to disrupt the function of the natural cells in the upper airways that help expel viruses and other pathogens.”
“Recent studies are highlighting that vaping can damage vital immune system cells and may be more harmful than previously thought,” Webster said.
“Some studies are indicating that vaping increases susceptibility to COVID-19 infection. Smoking cigarettes does the same.”
A preliminary 2019 study based in the US, Association Between Youth Smoking, Electronic Cigarette Use, and COVID-19, aimed to assess whether vaping and e-cigarette use among young people was associated with COVID-19 symptoms, testing and diagnosis. The study found that youth who used e-cigarettes were five times more likely to contract COVID-19, while youth who smoked both e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes were seven times more likely to test positive.
Additionally, e-cigarettes expose a person to nicotine and other harmful chemicals which directly impact the function of the lungs, which might increase the risk of infection or developing a more serious case of COVID-19. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), current smokers and people with a history of smoking may be at a higher risk of developing a severe case of COVID-19, and like other respiratory illnesses, COVID-19 can also cause lasting lung damage.